«Azul Rojas Marín y otra Vs Perú» será el primer caso LGTB que la CIDH someta ante la Corte IDH

Washington, D.C. – La Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (CIDH) presentó ante la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos (Corte IDH) el caso 12.982, Azul Rojas Marín y otra, respecto de Perú.

El caso se relaciona con la privación de libertad ilegal, arbitraria y discriminatoria de Azul Rojas Marín, a partir del 25 de febrero de 2008, supuestamente con fines de identificación. La Comisión determinó que aunque la posibilidad de retención con fines de identificación, se encontraba prevista en la legislación peruana en ciertas circunstancias, esta norma imponía una serie de requisitos tanto formales como sustantivos que no fueron cumplidos en el caso.

Además, la CIDH señaló que no existen en el caso elementos que permitieran justificar la detención en la posible prevención de un delito sino que, por el contrario, la privación de libertad se basó en apreciaciones subjetivas que no guardan relación con tal finalidad.

Asimismo, la CIDH consideró que desde el momento en que Azul Rojas Marín fue interceptada por los funcionarios estatales, éstos no sólo ejercieron violencia física en su contra sino que además la agredieron verbalmente con reiteradas referencias a su orientación sexual mediante expresiones denigrantes.
       
La Comisión también consideró acreditada la existencia de graves actos de violencia física y psicológica, incluyendo diversas formas de violencia y violación sexual en contra de Azul Rojas Marín. La Comisión encontró que existen elementos suficientes para considerar que por la naturaleza y forma en que dicha violencia fue ejercida, existió un especial ensañamiento con la identificación o percepción de Azul Rojas Marín, para ese momento, como un hombre gay. La Comisión consideró que lo sucedido a la víctima debe ser entendido como violencia por prejuicio y además que se encuentran presentes los elementos constitutivos de la tortura. 
       
Finalmente, la Comisión concluyó que los hechos del caso se encuentran en la impunidad por una serie de factores que incluyen el incumplimiento del deber de investigar con la debida diligencia desde las etapas iniciales de la investigación. Además, la CIDH determinó que a lo largo de la investigación la víctima fue descalificada y su credibilidad puesta en duda de manera revictimizante tanto por autoridades que practicaron prueba, como en el marco de las decisiones que dieron lugar al sobreseimiento de la causa. La Comisión consideró que el Estado contravino las obligaciones de atención y protección de una víctima que denuncia violencia sexual, con el factor agravado del prejuicio existente respecto de las personas LGBT. La Comisión también determinó afectaciones a la madre de Azul Rojas Marín.

En el Informe de Fondo, la Comisión recomendó a Perú disponer una reparación integral a Azul Rojas Marín y su madre, Juana Rosa Tanta Marín, por las violaciones de los derechos humanos en su perjuicio. Esta reparación debe incluir medidas de compensación pecuniaria y satisfacción para reparar tanto el daño material como moral, así como un acto público de reconocimiento de responsabilidad por parte del Estado para las víctimas. 

Adicionalmente, la CIDH recomendó investigar de manera efectiva, con la debida diligencia y dentro de un plazo razonable la violencia sexual sufrida por Azul Rojas Marín, calificada como tortura en el informe. Se especificó que las investigaciones y procesos judiciales a que hubiera lugar deberían adelantarse con base en los estándares descritos en el informe.

Asimismo, la Comisión recomendó disponer las correspondientes medidas administrativas, disciplinarias o penales correspondientes frente a las acciones u omisiones de los funcionarios estatales que contribuyeron a los distintos factores de denegación de justicia identificados en el informe.

En adición a ello, la Comisión recomendó brindar de forma gratuita, inmediata y por el tiempo que sea necesario, el tratamiento médico y psicológico o psiquiátrico, según corresponda, a la víctima del presente caso si así lo solicita y de manera concertada con ella.

La CIDH recomendó asimismo adoptar mecanismos de no repetición, incluyendo asegurar que el artículo 205 del Código de Procedimiento Penal no sea utilizado por autoridades policiales de manera abusiva y discriminatoria, a través, por ejemplo, de mecanismos efectivos de rendición de cuentas; adoptar medidas legislativas, administrativas o de otra índole para garantizar el acceso a la justicia en casos de violencia contra personas LGBT; diseñar programas de formación y capacitación para todos los operadores jurídicos que tengan contacto y/o estén a cargo de investigar casos de violencia por prejuicio, incluida violencia sexual; y capacitar a los cuerpos de seguridad, y en general, funcionarios/as que tengan a su cargo la custodia de personas privadas de libertad, en la prohibición absoluta de la tortura y de la violencia sexual y de otra índole contra la población LGBT, así como a enviar un claro mensaje de repudio a este tipo de actos.

Finalmente, la CIDH instó al Estado a ratificar la Convención Interamericana contra toda forma de discriminación e intolerancia aprobada por la Asamblea General de la OEA el 5 de junio de 2013.

La Comisión Interamericana sometió el caso a la jurisdicción de la Corte el 22 de agosto de 2018, porque aunque el Estado informó sobre algunas medidas tendientes a cumplir las recomendaciones sobre medidas de no repetición y sobre la reapertura de la investigación penal, no presentó propuesta alguna de reparación integral a favor Azul Rojas Marín, no obstante la gravedad de la tortura sexual de la que fue víctima.

Se trata del primer caso que la CIDH somete a la Corte Interamericana en materia de violencia en contra de las personas LGBT. El caso ofrece a la Corte la oportunidad de profundizar su jurisprudencia respecto de  casos de violencia física, psicológica y sexual por parte de agentes de seguridad del Estado, con las particularidades que se desprenden de la violencia por prejuicio, incluyendo los estándares particulares en materia probatoria y de investigación y sanción a los responsables.

Asimismo, la Corte Interamericana podrá pronunciarse sobre los distintos supuestos de estigmatización, descalificación y discriminación que puede sufrir una víctima en un caso como el presente en el contexto de la investigación penal.

Por otra parte, la Honorable Corte podrá desarrollar su jurisprudencia en materia de libertad personal, en lo relativo a las facultades de los cuerpos de seguridad del Estado de detener a personas con fines de identificación o de prevención del delito y las salvaguardas tanto procesales como sustantivas necesarias para que dicha facultad no sea contraria a la Convención Americana.

La CIDH es un órgano principal y autónomo de la Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA), cuyo mandato surge de la Carta de la OEA y de la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos.

La Comisión Interamericana tiene el mandato de promover la observancia y la defensa de los derechos humanos en la región y actúa como órgano consultivo de la OEA en la materia. La CIDH está integrada por siete miembros independientes que son elegidos por la Asamblea General de la OEA a título personal, y no representan sus países de origen o residencia.

http://www.oas.org/es/cidh/prensa/comunicados/2018/189.asp

 

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